Historical Agenda

Portugal - Afonso de Albuquerque
Conquest by Sea (Agenda)
• Afonso will hate civs that possess coastatal cities / harbor districts, and have a different religion than him, while liking civs that trades with him

America - Theodore Roosevelt
Big Stick (Agenda)
Likes peaceful civilizations that have a city on his home continent. Hates civilizations starting wars against a city state or civilization based on his continent.

Arabia - Saladin
Ayyubid Dynasty (Agenda)
Wants to have his worship building in many cities, and likes a civilization with it. Dislikes civilizations following other Religions or civilizations waging war on followers of his religion.

Aztec - Montezuma I
Tlatoani (Agenda)
Likes civilizations that have the same luxury resources as he does and will try to collect every luxury resource available. Dislikes civilizations that have a new luxury he has not collected.

Brazil - Pedro II
Patron of the Arts (Agenda)
Likes civilizations who are not competing for Great People, and will recruit Great People whenever possible. Dislikes losing a Great Person to another civilization.

China - Qin Shi Huang
Wall of 10,000 Li (Agenda)
Likes civilizations not competing for wonders, and builds wonders whenever possible. Dislikes losing a wonder to another civilization.

Egypt - Cleopatra
Queen of the Nile (Agenda)
Likes civilizations with powerful militaries and will try to ally with them to avoid damaging military conflicts. Dislikes civilizations with weak militaries.

England - Queen Victoria
Sun Never Sets (Agenda)
Likes civilizations from her home continent, and wants to expand to all continents. Doesn't like civilizations on continents where England has no city.

France - Catherine de Medici
Black Queen (Agenda)
Catherine will gain as many spies and as much diplomatic access as she can and will dislike anyone who ignores espionage

Germany - Frederick Barbarossa
Iron Crown (Agenda)
Barbarossa likes civilizations who do not associate with City States. He does not like civilizations that become Suzerain or who conquer City States.

Greece - Gorgo
With Your Shield or On It (Agenda)
Never gives up items in a peace deal, and likes civilizations who match that approach. Dislikes civilizations who have capitulated or who have never gone to war.

Greece - Pericles
Delian League (Agenda)
Likes civilizations that aren't competing for the same city state allegiance. Dislikes civilizations that are directly competing for city state allegiance.

India - Mahatma Gandhi
Peacekeeper (Agenda)
Never declares wars for which he can be branded a warmonger and will try to befriend those who maintain the peace. Hates warmongers.

Japan - Hojo Tokimune
Bushido (Agenda)
Likes civilizations that have a strong military and faith and culture output. Dislikes civilizations that are strong in military but weak in faith and culture output.

Kongo - Mvemba a Nzinga
Enthusiastic Disciple (Agenda)
Likes civilizations that bring Religion to the Kongo. Dislikes civilizations that have founded a religion but not brought it to a Kongolese city.

Norway - Harald Hardrada
Last Viking King (Agenda)
Builds a large navy and respects civilizations who follow his lead. Does not like civilizations with a weak navy.

Rome - Trajan
Optimus Princepes (Agenda)
Tries to include as much territory as possible in his empire. Does not like civilizations that control little territory.

Russia - Peter the Great
Westernizer (Agenda)
Friendly to those civilizations that are ahead of him in science and culture. Dislikes backwards civilizations that are lacking in science and culture.

Scythia - Tomyris
Backstab Averse (Agenda)
Likes civilizations who are their declared friend. Hates civilizations who backstab and declare surprise wars.

Spain - Philip II
Counter Reformer(Agenda)
Likes civilizations who follow the same religion and wants his cities to all follow the same religion. Hates anyone trying to spread their religion into his empire.

Sumeria - Gilgamesh
Ally of Enkidu (Agenda)
Likes civilizations who are willing to form a long term alliance. Dislikes anyone denouncing or attacking him or his friends and allies.

Leader Ability

Portugal - Afonso de Albuquerque
Mare Clausum (Leader Bonus)
• + 1 range of attack for all your ranged naval units
• All your naval units might build a Padrao Unique Improvement by spending 3 turns
• Afonso can edify Padrão in the coast of a foreign City-State. Padraos grant Portugal one free envoy to that coastal city state, while decreasing all foreign envoys by one and closing them the access to that city state territory.These effects won't stack up (so you won't get 3 free envoys for building 3 padraos). It provides faith equal to the adjacency bonus of the Harbor and has no costs of maintenance.

America - Theodore Roosevelt
Roosevelt Corollary (Leader Bonus)
Units receive a combat strength bonus on their home continent
Bonus appeal to all tiles in a city with a National Park
Gain the Rough Rider Unique Unit which is unlocked with Rifling, gains culture from kills on their home continent, has increased combat strength when fighting on hills and has a lower maintenance cost.

Arabia - Saladin
Righteousness of the Faith (Leader Bonus)
The worship building for the Arabian religion can be purchased by any civilization at a reduced cost and increaes science, faith and culture output of Arabian cities

Aztec - Montezuma I
Gifts for the Tlatoani (Leader Bonus)
Luxury resources in his territory provide an Amenity to 2 extra cities
Military Units receive bonus combat strength for each different luxury resource improved in Aztec lands

Brazil - Pedro II
Magnanimous (Leader Bonus)
After recruiting or patronizing a great person, 20% of it's Great Person point cost is refunded

China - Qin Shi Huang
The First Emperor (Leader Bonus)
When building Ancient and Classical wonders you may spend builder charges to speed construction
Builders also receive an additional charge

Egypt - Cleopatra
Mediterranean's Bride (Leader Bonus)
Trade routes to other civilizations provide extra Gold for Egypt
Other civilizations' Trade Routes to Egypt provide extra food for them and extra Gold for Egypt

England - Queen Victoria
Pax Britannica (Leader Bonus)
All settled or conquered cities on a foreign continent receive a free melee unit
Gain the Redcoat unique unit which is unlocked with Military Science, gains a bonus fighting on foreign continents and can disembark without using a movement point

France - Catherine de Medici
Catherine's Flying Squadron (Leader Bonus)
One level of Diplomatic visibility above normal with every civilization met
Can build an extra spy after researching castles

Germany - Frederick Barbarossa
Holy Roman Emperor (Leader Bonus)
Additional Military Policy slot for any government
Bonus Combat Strength when attacking city-states

Greece - Gorgo
Thermopylae (Leader Bonus)
Whenever her units are victorious in combat, she’ll accrue Culture equal to 50% of the base strength of the defeated unit.

Greece - Pericles
Surrounded by Glory (Leader Bonus)
Greece receives a culture bonus for every city state for which they are Suzerain

India - Mahatma Gandhi
Satyagraha (Leader Bonus)
Receive a faith boost for each civilization you have met that has founded a religion and with whom you are not at war.
Opposing civilizations receive additional happiness penalties for fighting wars against Gandhi

Japan - Hojo Tokimune
Divine Wind (Leader Bonus)
Land units receive bonus Combat Strength in land tiles adjacent to Coast
Naval units receive bonus Combat Strength in shallow water tiles
Builds Encampment, Holy Site and Theatre Square districts in half the time

Kongo - Mvemba a Nzinga
Religious Convert (Leader Bonus)
May not build Holy Site districts, gain Great Prophets or found Religions
Gains all beliefs of any religion that has established itself in a majority of his cities
Receives a free apostle of the city's majority religion whenever a Mbanza or Theatre district is built

Norway - Harald Hardrada
Thunderbolt of the North (Leader Bonus)
Norwegian naval melee units can perform coastal raids
Hardrada can build the Viking Longship which replaces the Galley, can pillage enemy coastal tiles, capture civilians if adjacent using it's coastal raiding ability and has increased movement in coastal tiles

Rome - Trajan
Trajan's Column (Leader Bonus)
New cities start with a free city center building, usually a monument (for ancient era starts)

Russia - Peter the Great
Grand Embassy (Leader Bonus)
Gives science and culture from trade routes to more advanced civilizations

Scythia - Tomyris
Killer of Cyrus (Leader Bonus)
All units receive bonus Combat Strength when attacking wounded units
When they eliminate a unit, they heal up to 50 health points

Spain - Philip II
El Escorial (Leader Bonus)
Combat bonus against units from civilizations with a different religion in both military and religious combat
Inquisitors can remove heresy one extra time

Sumeria - Gilgamesh
Adventures with Enkidu (Leader Bonus)
Can declare war on anyone who is at war with one of his allies without any warmonger penalties
When fighting a joint war, Sumerian units share pillage rewards and combat experience with the closest allied unit within five tiles

Leader Description

Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque was sent to India by Manuel I, like others. He was the less loved one, many explorers and captains of the portuguese boats didnt like him, and even hate him to dead. But he was like an emperor after all, when he saw Goa he saw an opportunity, and against all he got it. He was a hard to be corruped, and also hard to get fooled with negotiating with other civs. He was also very strong, he sailed, he fought, he constructed, he was governor of Goa and viceroy of matters of Portugal in India.

Theodore Roosevelt
Roosevelt took office following the assassination of President McKinley in 1901 and, at the age of 42, became the youngest United States President in history, a record he still holds today. Roosevelt championed his Square Deal domestic policy, comprised of three basic ideals: the conservation of natural resources, greater control over corporate plutocracy, and consumer protection.His efforts to regulate corporate trust and monopolies earned him the nickname 'trust buster.' He established the United States Forestry Service in 1905 and fought for the conservation of millions of acres of federal land, which are still protected to this day. Roosevelt also coined the iconic phrase 'speak softly, and carry a big stick,' describing his form of foreign policy of negotiating peacefully while simultaneously threatening with the 'big stick.' Roosevelt described this policy as 'the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis.'

Born in 1137, Saladin was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria, and led the Muslims during the Crusades. Saladin initially began as a multilingual and knowledgeable scholar before beginning a military career under his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh. In Egypt, Saladin was but an obscure figure under ruler Nur al-Din, later ascending as a military expert and becoming Viser of Cairo.In 1171 Saladin became ruler of Egypt and conquered Damascus after the death of Nur al-Din. With newfound wealth, he went on to conquer Aleppo and Mosul in 1183 and 1186, and in 1187 he conquered the city of Jerusalem. This prompted the third crusade led by King Richard the Lionheart. After years of conflict, the Treaty of Ramla was signed in 1192, allowing Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem although the holy city stayed under Muslim political control.

Montezuma I
Montezuma I, born in 1398, was the fifth king of the city of Tenochtitlan and second emperor of the Aztecs. His 29-year reign was categorized by a major consolidation and expansion of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Triple Alliance, as well as enacting a new series of sumptuary laws which aim to curb rampant consumption of goods and decadent lifestyles that reinforced an already existing class system permeating every facet of Aztec life.Montezuma's reign ended when he passed away from unknown causes in 1469 AD. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old son Axayacatl, who later sired Montezuma II, the Aztec leader who managed to lose it all to Hernan Cortes and his group of conquistadors.

Pedro II
Pedro II, born in 1839, was the second and final ruler of the Empire of Brazil, a 19th-century state comprised of territories encompassing Brazil and Uruguay. Groomed for rule from the age of five after his father abdicated the throne and fled to Europe, Pedro II was known for his strong devotion to his people despite his resentment towards the monarchy that robbed him of so much of his childhood. Despite this adversity and the crumbling state of the Empire his father left him with, Pedro II managed to steer Brazil towards prosperity until he was suddenly usurped in a surprise military coup d'état and exiled to Europe, where he remained until his death in 1891.Pedro II earned the respect and admiration of some of the greatest scholars at the time, and is forever remembered as a champion of knowledge, culture and science.

Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang was a ruthless leader, responsible for conquering and uniting the various warring states of China. He went on to become the nation's first emperor in 221 BC.During his reign, Qin Shi Huang's military generals greatly expanded the size of China's territory. Qin Shi Huang was known for enacting major economic and political reforms that helped bring standardization to the many varied Chinese states, as well as unifying each state's walls into one singular Great Wall of China. Finally, Qin Shi Huang is known for building the world-famous Terracotta Army, a literal army of life-sized clay soldiers.

Born Cleopatra Thea Philopater in 69 BC, the Egyptian ruler set forth on a path to power that left many lives in her wake. At the age of 14, after many of her rivals had been poisoned or executed, she was made regent and deputy to her father, Ptolemy XII. Four years later, her father passed away, leaving Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII (who was only ten years old at the time) as joint rulers of Egypt. Cleopatra, now married to her younger brother, had no intention of sharing power, and eventually had all mention of her brother erased from public records. Ptolemy XIII fled and she had become the sole leader and pharaoh of Egypt.In the years to follow, Cleopatra would strike up romances with powerful Roman figures such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, and ally Ancient Egypt with some of the most important figures of the time.

Queen Victoria
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India and Defender of the Faith, Queen Victoria was heiress presumptive at a tender young age. Less than a month after her 18th birthday, her uncle, King William IV passed away, and Victoria became Queen.She would go on to reign over the British Empire for 63 eventful years, a span of time that saw the Monarch greatly expand its international holdings through military conquest. Her reign is more commonly known as the Victorian era, a period of great cultural, industrial, political, scientific and military change within the United Kingdom, where national conviction and refined sensibilities of morality became the chief ideals of its citizens.

Catherine de Medici
Born an Italian noblewoman, Catherine de Medici was wed to King Henry II of France and served as Queen from 1547 until her husband's death in 1559. Her influence would extend beyond this brief period as Queen however; as she went on to bear three sons who would each become King of France during her lifetime.Her offspring each ruled France during a period of continuous civil and religious war. Despite the constant threat of complex and seemingly insurmountable conflict, Catherine kept the French monarchy intact as she championed both policies of compromise with the rebellious Protestant class and later more hardline stances against them. She was one of the most powerful women in Europe during her lifetime and was known to be a ruthless individual whose efforts inarguably kept the French monarchy in power during one of France's most tumultuous periods.

Frederick Barbarossa
The charismatic Frederick Barbarossa served as the King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor for nearly 40 years. Using strong organizational skills and military intellect, Barbarossa adeptly sought peace in Germany while helming six expeditions into Italy in defiance of papal authority.Barbarossa assimilated several Italian city-states, ultimately claiming direct Imperial control before settling peacefully with the opposition. In 1180 he looked inward, deposing Henry the Lion, one of the most powerful German princes of the time, and proclaimed peace throughout the Empire.

Though not much is known about her childhood, history remembers Queen Gorgo of Sparta, married to King Leonidas I in the 5th century BC, as a wise politician and capable ruler. She reigned alongside her King during the Greco-Persian Wars, a series of conflicts between the Persian Empire and the independent Greek city-states, and aided King Leonidas in his quest to form a coalition to muster against the impending invasion from Xerxes.Though Xerxes made some advancements and held a large chunk of Europe during his invasion, the Greeks eventually expelled the Persians from Europe and ensured no Persian soldiers stepped on Spartan soil.

Pericles was an influential Greek statesman and general of the Athens army during the Golden Age of Athens. He oversaw a period of strong economic and cultural growth immediately following the successful defense against the invading Persian army in 478 B.C.After making peace with Persia, Pericles moved the unified Greek armies to Athens and what was a loose collection of independent Greek city-states soon after became the Athenian Empire. During this time of unification, Athens produced some of the most influential cultural artifacts humanity has ever seen, and was home to famous playwrights, historians, philosophers, physicians and more.

Mahatma Gandhi
Born in British-ruled India, Gandhi was famed for his courageous passive movements towards alleviating poverty, increasing women's rights, promoting religious harmony and, most prominently, obtaining India's independence.Gandhi led the campaign for India's independence from British rule through a specific philosophy of nonviolent resistance called Satyagraha. Some of his movements included the famed Salt March, multiple hunger strikes and more, which often led to long stints in prison and harm to himself.

Hojo Tokimune
Hojo Tokimune, born in 1251, was the eighth Shikken (de facto ruler, or Shogun-regent) of Japan. He is chiefly remembered for leading Japanese forces to victory against the invading Mongol Empire, as well as spreading Zen Buddhism throughout Japan and championing the Bushido way of life.Tokimune was known to rule with an iron fist. After the Mongol Empire first attempted invasion in 1274 and was summarily defeated, it sent five emissaries to meet with Tokimune. These emissaries refused to leave without an audience with the Shikken, to which Tokimune responded by having them beheaded. Again, five more emissaries were sent, and again Tokimune had them all beheaded. This resulted in another invasion in 1281, which also failed, this time in part due to an unforeseen typhoon. As the threat of the Mongol Empire loomed over Japan for years, the samurai warrior class established itself as a formidable force and led all of Japan's defensive efforts, securing a legacy as one of the toughest warrior classes the world has ever known.

Mvemba a Nzinga
Also called King Afonso I, Nzinga is most famous for his attempts to spread Christianity across his empire, and increased activities with Portugal in a bid to modernize the empire.Mvemba a Nzinga's road to becoming king was paved with conflict. In 1506, he defeated his half-brother Mpanzu a Nzinga's forces in open conflict to claim the throne. Accounts attributed his victory to the appearance of an apparition of Saint James the Great breaking the morale of the enemy, thus leading to Christianity becoming the royal faith during Nzinga's rule.

Harald Hardrada
Norway's eventual king wasn't always close to the throne. Exiled from his native land in 1030 after supporting his half-brother Olaf's failed campaign, Hardrada sought refuge in Kievan Rus and later, Constantinople. Being a highly skilled warrior, he climbed the ranks of the Varangian Guard, earning the nickname 'Devastator of the Bulgarians' after quelling an uprising.In 1042 he returned to Norway and skillfully maneuvered his was into joint kingship with Magnus I. After Magnus' passing, the now sole ruler of Norway warred with Sweyn, King of Denmark, in 1048 until 1064 before settling peacefully. He then attempted to claim the throne of England, perishing during the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066.

As the 13th Emperor of Rome, Trajan was as successful a soldier as he was an overseer, responsible for a great expansion of territories for Rome unmatched by any Emperor to follow.Born around the year AD 52, Marcus Ulpius Traianus held military renown and served as the governor of Upper Germany before being named Emperor in October 97 CE.

Peter the Great
Known for his vast reforms and modernizations, Peter the Great has a resume few can match. Peter modernized Russia at a widespread level – primarily expanding his nation’s naval abilities for both trade and warfare, and gaining access to the Black Sea by capturing Azov from the Crimean Tatar vassals of Turkey. In 1697 he discretely went to Western Europe in the Grand Embassy to examine international affairs.Peter led a coalition against the Swedish Empire in the 21-year Great Northern War. A historic victory was won in the Battle of Poltava in 1709, but it wasn’t until 1721 that the Baltic belonged to Russia.

Tomyris assumed leadership of her group of nomadic pastoral tribes in 530 BC upon the death of her husband, the current chieftain. Her exploits were mentioned in the works of several great ancient writers such as Herodotus, Strabo, Polyaenus, Cassiodorus and Jordanes.The most notable story about Tomyris involves the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great and his efforts to invade and subjugate Tomyris' people. Cyrus and his troops planted an unattended camp with a healthy supply of wine in Scythian territory. The Scythian army, led by Tomyris' son, stumbled upon the wine and, unfamiliar with the intoxicating effects of alcohol, drank themselves into a stupor. After, the Persians attacked the incapacitated army and kidnapped Tomyris' son.

Philip II
For 48 years, Philip II was king of the massive Spanish Empire, and the most powerful ruler in Europe during the 16th century. He championed the Catholic faith, utilizing the Spanish Inquisition and leading several religious conflicts.In staunch defense of Catholicism, Philip organized a 'Holy League' against the Ottoman Empire, halting their dominance across the Mediterranean at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. He later opposed Protestantism in England, and attempted to invade the country several times using his fleet of ships, the world-famous Spanish Armada.

Little is known about the real Gilgamesh, the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh and other Sumerian poems. In the epic, Gilgamesh, king of the city of Uruk, is described as part god and part man, and has several run-ins with various gods as well as a sage who is said to have survived the Great Flood depicted in the Bible.Scholars generally concur that Gilgamesh was in fact a real person, as several individuals referenced in the epic are confirmed to have lived in the region at the time, between 2800 and 2500 BC. An ancient manuscript, called the Sumerian King List, posits that Gilgamesh ruled over the city of Uruk for 126 years.

Civilization Ability

Early Globalization (Civilization Bonus)
• Circunnavigating the globe will grant Portugal an extra diplomatic goverment slot
• Stablishing an inter-continental trade route with a city state will grant you one free envoy with it
• Receive 2 Inspirations at random when you discover all continents

Founding Fathers (Civilization Bonus)
Earn all government Legacy bonuses in half the usual time

The Last Prophet (Civilization Bonus)
Arabia will automatically receive the last available Great Prophet if they have not already founded a religion.
Each forgien city following Arabia's religion provides one science for Arabia

Legend of the Five Suns (Civilization Bonus)
May spend Builder charges to speed district construction

Amazon (Civilization Bonus)
Rainforest tiles provide extra adjacency bonus for Campus, Commercial Hub, Holy Site and Theatre Square districts
Rainforest tiles provide extra housing for neighborhoods built adjacent to them

Dynastic Cycles (Civilization Bonus)
Eurekas and Inspirations provide 60% of civics and technologies instead of 50%

Iteru (Civilization Bonus)
Districts and Wonders are built faster if placed adjacent to a river
Floodplains do not block placement of districts and wonders

British Museum (Civilization Bonus)
Each Archaeological Museum holds 6 Artifacts instead of 3 and can support 2 Archaeologists at once
Archeological Museums are automatically themed when they hold 6 artifacts

Grand Tour (Civilization Bonus)
Bonus production towards constructing Medieval, Renaissance, and Industrial era wonders
Tourism from wonders of any era is doubled

Free Imperial Cities (Civilization Bonus)
Cities can build one additional district above what the population limit would normally allow

Plato’s Republic (Civilization Bonus)
Greece has an extra wildcard policy slot no matter which government they choose

Plato's Republic (Civilization Bonus)
Greece has an extra wildcard policy slot no matter which government they choose

Dharma (Civilization Bonus)
Receive the benefits of all follower beliefs of all religions present in your cities, in addition to any religion you may have founded

Meiji Restoration (Civilization Bonus)
All districts receive a standard +1 adjacency bonus for each other adjacent district rather than the minor bonus other civilizations have

Nkisi (Civilization Bonus)
Bonus food, production and gold from each Relic, Artifact and Great Work of Sculpture
Double Great Artist, Great Writer, Great Musician and Great Merchant points generated each turn
Palace has slots for 5 Great Works

Knarr (Civilization Bonus)
Naval melee units heal in neutral territory
Units ignore additional movement costs from embarking and disembarking
Units gain the ability to enter Ocean tiles after researching Shipbuilding

All Roads Lead to Rome (Civilization Bonus)
All cities Rome founds or conquers will start with a trading post. If the city is in trading route range of the capital, the city also gets an instant road to the capital.
Roman trade routes earn extra gold for passing through trade posts in Roman cities in addition to foreign cities

Mother Russia (Civilization Bonus)
Gain extra territory when founding a new city
Bonus faith and production yields from tundra tiles

People of the Steppe (Civilization Bonus)
Receive a second light cavalry or Saka Horse Archer unit each time you train a light cavalry or Saka Horse Archer

Treasure Fleet (Civilization Bonus)
Trade routes between different continents provide bonus gold for routes to other civilizations and bonus food and production for routes between your own cities
May build fleets and armadas earlier than other civilizations

Epic Quest (Civilization Bonus)
Can levy City State military forces at half cost
Clearing a barbarian camp also grants a tribal village reward

Civilization Strategy

Portugal with the power of building great ships (naus) and with great navigations skills. started to think about the spices trade that came from India, that passed by the red sea to be traded in Venice. With prices getting very inflationated they thought of getting to India by boat, wich was never tried before, at least by european countries, since in 1415china gone there with "stellar" ships, but then closed theirselfs in their walls even more. Portuguese in their hand reached India and Fought for eliminating the closed sea and trading, implementing the first globalization. Portuguese envoys started once a year (and multiplying every year) and they had to deal with India Monsoon, and all the hard path to get there itself. They found that the arabs controlled it, and being christian they used that to fight and kill with no remorse. Portugal will be a civilization apt at exploration, trade, and diplomacy with far-away lands!

America is a civilization well suited to protect and defend its home continent while accumulating Government Legacy bonuses and gradually building up for a possible late game tourism push. Rough Riders can give America a little boost in Culture while helping to defend the continent. Government Legacy bonuses, which remain active even after switching governments, can be very powerful and should be twice as strong for America. When settling cities America will want to grab territory with high appeal, Natural Wonders and Woods for future Seaside Resorts or National Parks which will further increase the appeal of all territory in that city. Increasing appeal not only helps with Tourism but also increases the housing capacity of Neighborhoods, allowing for larger population cities. Once the Film Studio becomes available, Tourism should really take off.

Arabia is a civilization that excels in both science and faith generation. Campus districts with a Madrassa and Holy Sites with a worship building can each generate both science and faith. In the early game Arabia could focus on getting well placed campus districts with good adjacency bonuses up and running first, knowing they are guaranteed to get a Great Prophet and found a religion even without rushing a Holy Site. Eventually Arabia will want lots of Holy Site districts as well with worship buildings generating science, faith and culture. Faith can provide a variety of benefits from religious bonuses to great person purchasing as well as purchasing religious units to spread their religion. As an added bonus, knights that heal every turn are a great advantage both in conquest and defense. All of this leads nicely to a late game science or religious victory.

The Aztecs are a civilization perfect for military expansion and growth. Early game wars with other civilizations will allow the Eagle Warriors to convert enemy units into free builders which can be used to speed up development of early districts helping the Aztecs get off to a quick start. When settling or conquering new territory, the Aztecs will want to pay special attention to acquiring new luxuries. Each new luxury will be able to support six cities instead of four helping to keep more people happy as their city populations grow and allowing the Aztecs the freedom to trade away more luxuries than other civilizations could, hopefully acquiring even more luxuries in the deal. As the luxury resources increase so does the combat strength of all Aztec units encouraging continued conquest to obtain even more luxuries. As the Aztec empire continues to grow and expand, the Tlachtli will add more amenities to keep the people happy while also adding to Great General generation to further fuel their military effort, possibly leading to a Conquest victory!

Brazil is a very versatile civilization which can easily pursue any victory especially if they can take advantage of rainforests which provide increased bonuses to five different districts. Obviously settling territory with lots of rainforests is a top priority. Once Brazil has their preferred districts up and running and hopefully receiving big bonuses from lots of rainforests, the Great Person points will begin rolling in. Brazil will pay the same cost to recruit or patronize a Great Person as anyone else but will then receive a refund in great person points giving them a head start toward the next one. If that’s not enough, Brazil can speed it up even more with a Carnival project! The wide variety of great people available to choose from gives Brazil many options for reaching any victory they choose.

China is a great civilization for rapid scientific and cultural development while building impressive cities with early World Wonders all protected by Crouching Tiger Cannons atop the Great Wall! China’s builders each get an extra use allowing more improvements from each one which, over the course of the game, could really help counteract the increased builder costs. In the early game those builders can even be used to boost production on Ancient and Classical wonders or to get that Great Wall built to protect your territory. Dynastic Cycles makes Eureka moments and Inspirations even more important by greatly increasing the acquisition of both technologies and civics. Between the early wonders, rapid development of science and culture and increasing yields from the Great Wall, China is a civilization with the potential to really get off to an early lead and carry it through to any victory condition!

Egypt is a civilization that excels at generating gold from trade routes and using rivers to quickly develop new cities and build World Wonders. Obviously Egypt will want to found cities on or near a river if at all possible especially since the production bonus for building districts and wonders next to a river remains throughout the entire game. Once Egypt has built some wonders they can further increase their benefits by adding Sphinx improvements next to those wonders for increased Faith and Culture gain. Developing relationships and trade routes with other civilizations should also be a priority as Egypt will receive extra gold from both the trade routes Egypt sends out and the ones other civilizations send to Egypt.

England is a civilization well suited to building or conquering cities to build a vast empire across several continents and then removing the artifacts of those continents for display in British Museums. The Sea Dog can capture enemy ships and press them into service in the British Navy while the Redcoats gain a combat bonus fighting on foreign continents. Every city built or captured on a foreign continent will grant a free melee unit to continue the conquest or defend your growing empire while building the Royal Navy Dockyard in those cities will help generate the gold needed to pay for the growing army and navy. England can easily pursue a Conquest victory with this strategy or could switch focus in the late game by sending Archeologists across the vast empire to fill museums with artifacts which will automatically gain a theme bonus regardless of what artifacts are displayed there for increased tourism and possibly leading to a Culture victory.

France is a civilization with several avenues for developing high amounts of culture and tourism. France will most likely want to spend the early game exploring, expanding and developing a strong core of cities to prepare for the Grand Tour beginning in the Medieval Era. France will want to take advantage of the increased production to grab all the key culture wonders. If possible, try to save some river adjacent tiles to add a Chateau next to your wonders for even more culture. High appeal tiles are also useful for Seaside Resorts or National Parks. Meanwhile French spies can steal Great Works from other civilizations to fill their own museums while also keeping tab on which wonders those civilization may be trying to build. With double tourism from every wonder a Culture victory should be in easy reach.

Germany as a civilization is a production power-house. The Free Imperial Cities bonus allows Germany to build more districts then other civilizations could at the same population. Half cost Industrial Districts with bonus adjacency production, especially with factories that extend production to multiple cities, should allow German cities to pump out wonders, military units, or whatever they wish with ease. The extra Military Policy slot can be used to really maximize a military focused government or to balance out a government that might otherwise have few military slots. The combat bonus against City State units comes in handy regardless of whether Germany wants to conquer City States to deprive other civilizations of those Suzerain bonuses or if Germany is at war with a civilization that has levied City State military units.

Greece under the leadership of Gorgo can generate large amounts of culture starting with the Acropolis but also allows for a more aggressive strategy by adding culture from military victories as well. In the early game try to settle cities next to hills for ideal Acropolis placement while sending your Hoplites out in groups to defeat barbarians and rival civilizations alike bringing in even more culture. Once you've carved out your territory you could continue moving toward a conquest victory or shift focus to a culture victory. Smart use of the Casus Belli system will allow Greece to continue waging justified wars to keep producing culture with reduced warmonger penalties even without capturing cities.

Greece under the leadership of Pericles has the potential to generate large amounts of culture through a combination of building Acropolis districts and deploying envoys to develop an alliance of City-States. The Acropolis district will be the key to generating Culture and each City-State for which Greece becomes Suzerain will provide a boost to the amount of culture being generated. Switching to more progressive government types should be a top priority since the higher tier governments provide envoys more quickly. The extra Wildcard policy slot works with any government and allows Greece some excellent flexibility in selecting policies. In the early game Greece’s Hoplites are an excellent deterrent to would be invaders while in the later game the threat of being able to levy the military of Greece’s numerous City-State allies will have the same effect. If Greece is successful at becoming Suzerain of many city states, the powerful bonuses they provide can propel Greece to any victory choice they choose.

India favors the peaceful spread of religion while growing the population of its cities. India will receive bonus faith from meeting the founders of religions and will then want to encourage as many different religions as possible to spread to its cities thus gaining access to their follower beliefs. Between the happiness penalties and the sight of India's Varu Elephants, other civilizations should be reluctant to declare war. This should leave India free to focus on using its high faith generation and increased housing and food from the stepwell to develop high population cities with many religious bonuses, pushing India toward any victory they choose.

Japan is a civilization that can be built for any victory by taking full advantage of the Meiji Restoration. Japan has three districts which can be built at half the cost and all districts get increased adjacency bonuses which should make Japanese cities quicker to develop and generate really high yields from every district if they can be kept close together. The Electronics Factory extends the production range even further allowing more cities to benefit from the increased production. Japan excels at maximizing yields even with limited space to expand and the Samurai will be a unit to be feared.

Kongo is unable to found a religion or win a Religious victory but is an excellent civilization for generating culture while developing large cities which can employ many specialists and generate high yields for any other victory type. Kongo will want to settle locations with many Woods or Rainforests and save them for Mvanza districts. Food and Housing shouldn't be a problem for Kongo but will need to keep an eye out for Amenities. Building Theatre Districts with museums and filling them with Relics and Artifacts should be a priority for even more increased yields not to mention earning Artists, Writers and Musicians twice as quickly!

As you would expect, Norway is designed to explore and pillage across the oceans. The sight of Viking Longships approaching your coast should make anyone nervous. Norway can easily pillage the coastal districts or improvements of other civilizations and then move out to sea to escape from a threat or to heal up and repeat. Even districts slightly off the coast won't be safe considering the Berserker will have no cost to embark or disembark and reduced movement cost to pillage. Norway excels at hampering the development of other civilizations while advancing their own. Combine that with the ability for embarked units to cross ocean tiles and Norway can assure their setters claim the best locations for new cities across the ocean.

The Roman Empire offers many incentives for growth and expansion. Rome will most likely want to send out settlers early and often to found as many cities as possible with key infrastructure such as roads, monuments and trading posts being added instantly in each city within range of Rome. The free monuments will help Rome to progress through the civics tree as well as helping to further expand the borders of the empire. Once Rome has established its empire, the Bath District can be constructed to help those cities grow their population with additional amenities and housing. Meanwhile, the Roman Legions with their forts, along with Rome's already extensive system of roads, will help protect the empire from any threats.

Russia is a civilization well suited to quickly building a large empire in the early game which not only keeps the barbarians away but will also pay great dividends in later eras when new resources and archaeological sites are revealed. Since all unique districts can be built for half the standard production cost and do not count towards the district limit, it should be relatively easy for Russia to get Holy Sites up and running quickly in most cities likely giving an advantage in the race to found a religion. The Grand Embassy ability also allows Russia the flexibility to focus on specific technologies or civics while ignoring other less useful ones and in doing so rely on trade routes to boost progress in both trees even further.

Scythia is a civilization clearly built for conquest in any era. In the early game Scythia will receive a free unit each time they build light cavalry or their unique unit the Saka Horse Archer, allowing Scythia to build a large army very quickly. In addition, all of Scythia's units get a bonus when fighting wounded units and heal themselves a small amount when defeating an enemy, both of these abilities are granted to all of Scythia's units in any era. If Scythia should grow tired of conquest, well placed Kurgans can provide a nice bonus to faith and gold allowing Scythia to build an early religion and possibly pursue a Religious Victory.

Clearly Spain is a civilization built for religious warfare and will absolutely want to found a religion. Philip's combat bonus will help all Spanish units throughout the game provided Spain's enemy follows a different religion. When Conquistadors become available, Spain will easily be able to convert captured cities to Spain's majority religion. Religious units can be 'attached' to Spain's conquistadors so they will move together and provide their combat bonus. Once Spain has captured and converted a majority of a civilization's cities they could end the war and return the cities, greatly reducing any warmonger penalty, while the cities would remain followers of Spain's religion.

Sumeria has the potential to really get off to a strong start in the early game. A few Zigguarts placed next to rivers and Sumeria will likely have a head start in both science and culture. At the same time War-Carts, with increased movement, make excellent explorers for finding City States, Natural Wonders, Tribal Villages and scouting out neighboring civilization's territory with the added bonus of being able to take out any barbarians they encounter on the way. Also, receiving rewards from both Tribal Villages and Barbarian Outposts has potential to provide a lot of useful rewards. Sumeria will want to choose allies wisely since they can join in their ally's wars with no warmonger penalty and possibly gain increased combat experience and pillage rewards in the process.

Unique Unit

Nau (Unique Unit)
• Unlocks at Cartography, replaces Caravel, and will be able to enter in city states territories irregardless of your level of influence with them
• Starts with the 'Volta do mar' promotion, which gives +2 movement if there are no land tiles in sight range when it begins its turn
• Also has the 'Feitoria' promotion, which allows the unit to construct a Feitoria on an adjacent coastal tile owned by a City - State not on your home continent, one time only
• Naus will be able to carry a unique 'expedition' action when placed next to a coastal goodie hut.It will make them receive not only the goodie hut bonus, but also an extra amount of gold and culture(will be bigger the further away it is from your capital)

P-51 Mustang (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Fighter
Increased combat strength vs other fighters
Extended range
Earns experience faster

Mamluk (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Knight
Heals at the end of every turn, even if it has moved or attacked

Eagle Warrior (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Warrior
Can convert defeated enemy units into builders
This conversion ability works only against the units of other civilizations, not barbarians

Minas Gerais (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Battleship but is available earlier
Improved defense and ranged attack
Requires the Nationalism civic

Crouching Tiger Cannon (Unique Unit)
This high-powered, short-ranged unit doesn't require specific resources to produce

Maryannu Chariot Archer (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Heavy Chariot
Receives bonus movement when it starts on open terrain

Sea Dog (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Privateer
Can capture enemy ships
Can only be seen by other units if they are adjacent to it

Garde Imperiale (Unique Unit)
Receives a combat bonus for fighting on the home continent
Earns Great General Points from kills

U-Boat (Unique Unit)
Replaces the submarine
Lower production cost
Able to reveal other hidden units
Sight increased by 1
Combat Strength bonus when fighting on Ocean tiles

Hoplite (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Spearman
Gains a Combat Strength bonus when other Hoplites are adjacent

Hoplite (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Spearman
Gains a Combat bonus when other Hoplites are adjacent

Varu War Elephant (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Horseman
Reduces the combat strength of adjacent enemy units

Samurai (Unique Unit)
Does not suffer Combat Penalties when damaged

Ngao Mbeba (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Swordsman
Receives a bonus to ranged defense and does not require iron
Woods and rainforests do not slow them down or block sight

Berserker (Unique Unit)
Increased movement if it starts in enemy territory
Pillaging costs 1 movement point
Bonus Combat Strength when attacking and reduced Combat Strength when defending

Legion (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Swordsman
Higher production cost and Combat Strength (does not require iron)
Functions as a military engineer (can build one Roman Fort, remove features and build roads; forts cannot be built in enemy territory)

Cossack (Unique Unit)
Replaces Cavalry
Higher combat strength than standard cavalry
Can move after attacking

Saka Horse Archer (Unique Unit)
An early game fast ranged unit that doesn't require Horses

Conquistador (Unique Unit)
Replaces the Musketman
Bonus Combat Strength when stacked with an Apostle, Inquisitor or Missionary
If a conquistador is adjacent to a city when it's captured, the city automatically converts to Spain's majority religion

War-Cart (Unique Unit)
Available at the start of the game
No penalty for fighting spearmen or other anti-cavalry units
Gains extra movement if starting on open terrain

Unique Improvement

Feitoria (Unique Infrastructure)
• Replaces harbor. Must be built on a harbor district or in the city center of a coastal city or City-State, on a foreign continent
• +1 production to all working boats and atolls in this city
• Provides extra amenities for each trade route with a city state that the city has
• This improvement provides significant yields in food, production, and gold to its tile
• When Portugal trades with this City - state, the trade route provides a large amount of extra gold, and even more if Portugal is the Sovereign

Film Studio (Unique Infrastructure)
Replaces the Broadcast Tower and is built in the Theatre Square
Doubles the Tourism pressure from this city during the modern era

Madrassa (Unique Infrastructure)
Provides more science than the University which it replaces
Provides faith according to the campus adjacency bonus

Tlachtli (Unique Infrastructure)
Replaces the Arena in the Entertainment District
Grants Amenities, Faith and Great General points

Street Carnival District (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the cost of the normal Entertainment District which it replaces
Can build the carnival project, converting production to amenities

Great Wall of China (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement which provides bonuses to Defense, Gold, Culture and Tourism that grow with more adjacent segments, if built on a hill and as you advance though the tech tree
Must be built along the edge of the empire

Sphinx (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement which provides Faith and Culture and get bonuses when built adjacent to a wonder

Royal Navy Dockyard (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the production cost of the Harbor District which it replaces
Removes the movement penalty for embarking or disembarking from the dockyard tile
Provides bonus movement to naval units built here
Provides bonus gold when built on foreign continents

Chateau (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement which must be built next to a river
Provides culture
Gains bonuses from adjacency to Wonders

Hansa (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the production cost of the Industrial Zone District which it replaces
Additional production if placed adjacent to a commercial hub, other districts or resources

Acropolis (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the production cost of the Theatre District which it replaces
Higher culture adjacency bonuses for being next to other districts, especially the city center
Must be built on a hill

Acropolis (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the production cost of the Theatre District which it replaces
Higher culture adjacency bonuses for being next to other districts, especially the city center
Must be built on a hill

Stepwell (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement that provides housing and food
Gives bonus food if built adjacent to a farm
Gives bonus faith if built adjacent to a holy site

Electronics Factory (Unique Infrastructure)
Replaces the Factory
Production bonus is extended to all cities within 6 tiles
Provides additional Culture to it's city after researching Electricity

Mbanza (Unique Infrastructure)
Replaces the Neighborhood District but can be built earlier
Can only be constructed in Rainforests or Woods
Provides 5 Housing, 2 Food and 4 Gold regardless of the tile's Appeal

Stave Church (Unique Infrastructure)
Replaces the Temple
Holy Site district gains additional faith adjacency bonus from Woods

Bath (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the production cost of a standard aqueduct district which it replaces
Provides more housing and an additional amenity
Must be placed next to the city center and next to a mountain or source of fresh water

Lavra (Unique Infrastructure)
Half the production cost of the Holy Site District which it replaces
Each time a great person is used in a city with a Lavra that city’s border will expand by one tile.

Kurgan (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement that provides Faith and Gold and receives an adjacency bonus from Pastures
Can't be built on a hill

Mission (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement that provides faith with bonus faith when built on a foreign continent and bonus science if built adjacent to a Campus district

Ziggurat (Unique Infrastructure)
An improvement that provides science and, if placed next to a river, will also provide culture
Cannot be built on a hill